Turkish Journal of Nephrology
Original Article

Protective Roles of Grewia asiatica, Basella alba, Solanum nigrum, and Ficus carica Fruit Extracts in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Renal Toxicity in a Mice Model


Department of Zoology, University of Chakwal Faculty of Science, Punjab, Pakistan


Ex-Professor Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan


Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, Faculty of Zoology, Punjab, Pakistan


Govt Associate College for Women Mochh Faculty of Science, Punjab, Pakistan

Turkish J Nephrol 2024; 33: 76-82
DOI: 10.5152/turkjnephrol.2023.22437
Read: 130 Downloads: 90 Published: 07 November 2023

Background: Kidney toxicology is becoming an alarming issue on the continuously increasing use of environmental chemicals like carbon tetrachloride.

Objective: In the present study, the renopathological effects of single-dose carbon tetrachloride exposure were investigated in male mice kidney. Likewise, rehabilitative properties of 4 medicinal plant-extract-treated groups were explored.

Methods: There were 6 study groups as vehicle control group, carbon tetrachloride group (0.1 mL corn oil and 0.2 mL/kg carbon tetrachloride solution in corn oil, respectively, on day 1 followed by simple drinking water (ad libitum) on days 2-6), carbon tetrachloride +Basella alba group, carbon tetrachloride + Grewia asiatica group, carbon tetrachloride + Solanum nigrum group, and carbon tetrachloride + Ficus carica group. Mice in the carbon tetrachloride+Basella alba, carbon tetrachloride +Grewia asiatica, carbon tetrachloride+Solanum nigrum, and carbon tetrachloride+ Ficus carica groups were given with carbon tetrachloride as in the carbon tetrachloride group on day 1, followed by 0.1 mL/12 h of respective fruit pulp extracts for days 2-6. Kidneys were removed from each animal on day 7 after cervical dislocation.

Results: Carbon tetrachloride exposure led to various histopathological alterations (complete obliteration of glomeruli and proximal convoluted tubules, glomerular hypertrophy, peri-glomerular space, and tubular apoptosis) that were recovered in all fruit pulp extract groups except carbon tetrachloride +Solanum nigrum group. Histometric outcomes support the histological findings that the mean number of endothelial cells remained significantly (P < .05) lower in carbon tetrachloride and carbon tetrachloride +Solanum nigrum groups than all other groups. Likewise, the mean number of podocytes remained significantly lower in carbon tetrachloride and vehicle control groups than the 4 plant-extract-treated groups. The biochemical estimations of serum creatinine level remained significantly higher in carbon tetrachloride than the rest of the plant-extract-treated and vehicle control groups.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the potential positive effects of active phytochemical ingredients of medicinal fruits against kidney damage caused by a single dose of CCl4 exposureI.

Cite this article as: Nadia Ahmad S, Raees Ahmad K, Ayesha Ahmed S, Saira Siddique M, Sadia Suleman M, Asma Younis M. Protective roles of Grewia asiatica, Basella alba, Solanum nigrum & Ficus carica fruit extracts in CCl4 induced renal toxicity in a mice model. Turk J Nephrol. 2024;33(1):76-82.

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