Turkish Journal of Nephrology
Review Article

Do Hemodialysis Patients Need Immune Boosting with Vitamin, Mineral, and Probiotic Supplementation during COVID-19 Pandemic?


Department of Nephrology, Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University School of Medicine, Kahramanmaras, Turkey


Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Bahcesehir University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey


Department of Nephrology, Basaksehir Cam and Sakura City Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey


Department of Nephrology, Adana City Hospital, Adana, Turkey


Department of Nephrology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey


Department of Nephrology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Turkish J Nephrol 2021; 30: 326-332
DOI: 10.5152/turkjnephrol.2021.21143
Read: 800 Downloads: 322 Published: 13 October 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been accepted as a global pandemic, and poses a greater risk to the elderly and those with comorbidities. Comorbid diseases (particularly end-stage kidney disease with hemodialysis) and impaired immunity place patients in the high-risk group for COVID-19. In recent studies, it was also mentioned that exaggerated inflammation and a cytokine storm were the underlying causes related to the high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Currently, treatment modalities to balance the immune system of such vulnerable patient groups are essential, to protect them from the disease. Several vitamins (like vitamins C, D, and E), trace elements like zinc, and probiotics have been proposed as immune boosters to protect and combat infectious conditions. It is well known that these vitamins and elements are insufficient in hemodialysis patients. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the immune-boosting mechanisms of vitamins C, D, E, zinc, and probiotics, the studies related to their beneficial effects against infections, and their possible benefits for hemodialysis patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cite this article as: Güngör O, Ulu S, Barış Hasbal N, Onan E, Turgut D, Arıcı M. Do hemodialysis patients need immune boosting with vitamin, mineral, and probiotic supplementation during COVID-19 pandemic?. Turk J Nephrol. 2021; 30(4): 326-332.

EISSN 2667-4440